The Tribal Climate Change Guide is part of the Pacific Northwest Tribal Climate Change Project. It has both academic literature and news stories that relate to Tribal work on climate change across the nation.
This page has introductory writings and reviews on Indigenous peoples and climate justice and an advanced bibliography of every source Dr. Whyte knows about that has published on the broad topic of Indigenous peoples and climate change.
Literature review project
- Belfer et al. Representation of Indigenous Peoples in Climate Change Reporting (2017).
- Kukutai, Tahu and John Taylor. Indigenous Data Sovereignty (2016).
- Norton-Smith et al. Climate Change and Indigenous People: A Synthesis of Current Impacts and Experiences (2016).
- Ning et al. Projected Changes in Climate Extremes over the Northeastern United States (2015).
- Ning, Liang and Raymond Bradley. Snow Occurrence Changes over the Central and Eastern United States under Future Warming Scenarios (2015).
- Bruhn, Jodi. Identifying Useful Approaches to the Governance of Indigenous Data (2014).
- Cheruvelil, Jubin and Barbara Barton. Wild Rice Adaptation to Climate Change (2014).
- Cochran et al. Indigenous Framework for Observing and Responding to Climate Change in Alaska (2013).
- Cozzetto et al. Climate Change Impacts on the Water Resources of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the U.S. (2013).
- Lynn et al. The Impacts of Climate Change on Tribal Traditional Foods (2013).
- Maldonado et al. The Impact of Climate Change on Tribal Communities in the US: Displacement, Relocation, and Human Rights (2013).
- Vinyeta, Kirsten and Kathy Lynn. Exploring the Role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Climate Change Initiatives (2013).
- Williams, Terry and Hardison, Preston. Culture, Law, Risk and Governance: Contexts of Traditional Knowledge in Climate Change Adaptation (2013).
- Mason et al. Listening and Learning from Traditional Knowledge and Western Science: A Dialogue on Contemporary Challenges of Forest Health and Wildfire (2012).
- Nakashima et al. Weathering Uncertainty: Traditional Knowledge for Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation (2012).
- Vogesser, Garrit. Cultural Impacts to Tribes from Climate Change Influences on Forests (2012).
- Fole et al. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability (2010).
- Tsosie, Rebecca. Climate Change, Sustainability and Globalization: Charting the Future of Indigenous Environmental Self-determination (2009).
- Berkes, Fikret. Understanding Uncertainty and Reducing Vulnerability: Lessons from Resilience Thinking (2007).
- Davidson-Hunt, Iain and Michael O’Flaherty. Researchers, Indigenous Peoples, and Place-Based Learning Communities (2007).
- Berkhout et al. Socio-economic Futures in Climate Change Impact Assessment: Using Scenarios as ‘Learning Machines’ (2001).
- Berkes et al. Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management (2000).
- Kimmerer, Robin Wall. Native Knowledge for Native Ecosystems (2000).
- Gadgil et al. Indigenous Knowledge for Biodiversity Conservation (1993).
- Smith, Tansey. 1854 Ceded Territory Climate Summary 2016-2017 (2018).
- Adapt: Collaborative Tribal Climate Adaptation Planning (2016).
- Center for Native Peoples and the Environment Annual Report (2016)
- Climate Change and Our Natural Resources: A Report from the Treaty Tribes in Western Washington (2016).
- Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Plan 1854 Ceded Territory Including The Bois Forte, Fond du Lac, and Grand Portage Reservations (2016).
- Michigan Tribal Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning. Project Report (2016).
- National Climate Assessment 3: Indigenous Peoples (2014).
- Supporting Tribal Climate Change Adaptation Planning Through Community Participatory Strategic Foresight Scenario Development (2014).
- United South & Eastern Tribes - 2013 USET Annual Report.
- Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa: Reducing Its Carbon Footprint and Adapting To Climate Change (2012).
- Facing The Storm: Indian Tribes, Climate-induced Weather Extremes, and the Future for Indian Country (2011).
- Tribes & Climate Change - Tuscarora: Drawing on Traditional Teaching to Confront a Changing Climate (2011)
- Addressing Climate Change at a Tribal Level (2010).
- GLIFWC - Threats to Wild Plants in The Ceded Territories (2002).
- Daigle and Putnam_Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples of Maine
- Emerald Ash Borer Impacts American Indian Communities
- Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC) Climate Change Program.
This article examines how newspapers reporting on climate change have covered and framed Indigenous peoples. Focusing on eight newspapers in Canada, the USA, Australia, and New Zealand, we examine articles published from 1995 to 2015, and analyze them using content and framing analyses. The impacts of climate change are portrayed as having severe ecological, sociocultural, and health/safety impacts for Indigenous peoples, who are often framed as victims and “harbingers” of climate change.
Kukutai, Tahu and John Taylor. Indigenous Data Sovereignty (2016).
As the global 'data revolution' accelerates, how can the data rights and interests of indigenous peoples be secured? Premised on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, this book argues that indigenous peoples have inherent and inalienable rights relating to the collection, ownership and application of data about them, and about their lifeways and territories.
Norton-Smith et al. Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples: A Synthesis of Current Impacts and Experiences (2016).
A growing body of literature examines the vulnerability, risk, resilience, and adaptation of indigenous peoples to climate change. This synthesis of literature brings together research pertaining to the impacts of climate change on sovereignty, culture, health, and economies that are currently being experienced by Alaska Native and American Indian tribes and other indigenous communities in the United States. The knowledge and science of how climate change impacts are affecting indigenous peoples contributes to the development of policies, plans, and programs for adapting to climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This report defines and describes the key frameworks that inform indigenous understandings of climate change impacts and pathways for adaptation and mitigation, namely, tribal sovereignty and self-determination, culture and cultural identity, and indigenous community health indicators. It also provides a comprehensive synthesis of climate knowledge, science, and strategies that indigenous communities are exploring, as well as an understanding of the gaps in research on these issues. This literature synthesis is intended to make a contribution to future efforts such as the 4th National Climate Assessment, while serving as a resource for future research, tribal and agency climate initiatives, and policy development.
Projections of historical and future changes in climate extremes are examined by applying the bias-correction spatial disaggregation (BCSD) statistical downscaling method to five general circulation models (GCMs) from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For this analysis, 11 extreme temperature and precipitation indices that are relevant across multiple disciplines (e.g., agriculture and conservation) are chosen.Over the historical period, the simulated means, variances, and cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of each of the 11 indices are first compared with observations, and the performance of the downscaling method is quantitatively evaluated. For the future period, the ensemble average of the five GCM simulations points to more warm extremes, fewer cold extremes, and more precipitation extremes with greater intensities under all three scenarios. The changes are larger under higher emissions scenarios. The inter-GCM uncertainties and changes in probability distributions are also assessed. Changes in the probability distributions indicate an in-crease in both the number and interannual variability of future climate extreme events. The potential deficiencies of the method in projecting future extremes are also discussed.
Ning, Liang and Raymond Bradley. Snow Occurrence Changes over the Central and Eastern United States under Future Warming Scenarios (2015).
Changes of snow occurrences over the central and eastern United States were investigated under two emission scenarios using averages of multiple general circulation models. By the end of the 21st century there will be a significant reduction in snowfall and length of the snow season. This can have great impacts on water resources, habitats, ecosystems, and economies in the region.
Bruhn, Jodi. Identifying Useful Approaches to the Governance of Indigenous Data (2014).
This exploratory policy article seeks to inform efforts to improve the governance of data between governments and Indigenous organizations and communities – especially the federal government and First Nations in Canada. It describes a spectrum of models arising from the growing literature on data governance in the corporate and public sectors as well as overarching approaches articulated by Indigenous organizations. After outlining certain practical considerations in negotiating data sharing agreements, the article presents a selection of promising initiatives in indigenous data governance undertaken in Canada, the United States, and Australia.
Climate change is predicted to significantly warm ambient and water temperatures in the Great Lakes wild rice region, increase invasive species, increase decomposition rates which will release phosphorus and toxins from the sediment, and alter the conditions that presently exist. These changes will likely negatively affect wild rice (Zizania spp.) populations, which in turn, will affect the long-held traditions of wild rice harvesting by Tribal communities.
Cochran et al. Indigenous Framework for Observing and Responding to Climate Change in Alaska (2013).
Despite a keen awareness of climate change, northern Indigenous Peoples have had limited participation in climate-change science due to limited access, power imbalances, and differences in worldview. Climate-induced habitat changes associated with loss of sea ice and with landscape drying and extensive wildfires interact with northern development to bring both economic opportunities and environmental impacts. This paper suggests a multi-pronged approach to broadening indigenous participation in climate change research.
Cozzetto et al. Climate Change Impacts on the Water Resources of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the U.S. (2013).
This paper provides an overview of climate change impacts on tribal water resources and the subsequent cascading effects on the livelihoods and cultures of American Indians and Alaska Natives living on tribal lands in the US.
Lynn et al. The Impacts of Climate Change on Tribal Traditional Foods (2013).
This paper examines the impacts of climate change on tribal traditional foods by providing cultural context for the importance of traditional foods to tribal culture, recognizing that tribal access to traditional food resources is strongly influenced by the legal and regulatory relationship with the federal government, and examining the multi-faceted relationship that tribes have with places, ecological processes and species. Tribal participation in local, regional and national climate change adaption strategies, with a focus on food-based resources, can inform and strengthen the ability of both tribes and other governmental resource managers to address and adapt to climate change impacts.
Maldonado et al. The Impact of Climate Change on Tribal Communities in the US: Displacement, Relocation, and Human Rights (2013).
Taking a human rights approach, this article looks at communities’ advocacy efforts and strategies in dealing with climate change, displacement, and relocation. Case studies of Coastal Alaska and Louisiana are included to consider how communities are shaping their own relocation efforts in line with their cultural practices and values. The article concludes with recommendations on steps for moving forward toward community-led and government-supported resettlement programs.
Vinyeta, Kirsten and Kathy Lynn. Exploring the Role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Climate Change Initiatives (2013).
This synthesis describes the potential role of TEK in climate change assessment and adaptation efforts. It also identifies some of the challenges and benefits associated with merging TEK with Western science, and reviews the way in which federal policies and administrative practices facilitate or challenge the incorporation of TEK in climate change initiatives. The synthesis highlights examples of how tribes and others are including TEK into climate research, education, and resource planning and explores strategies to incorporate TEK into climate change policy, assessments, and adaptation efforts at national, regional, and local levels.
Williams, Terry and Hardison, Preston. Culture, law, risk and governance: contexts of traditional knowledge in climate change adaptation (2013).
Traditional knowledge is increasingly recognized as valuable for adaptation to climate change, bringing scientists and indigenous peoples together to collaborate and exchange knowledge. These partnerships can benefit both researchers and indigenous peoples through mutual learning and mutual knowledge generation. Despite these benefits, most descriptions focus on the social contexts of exchange. The implications of the multiple cultural, legal, risk-benefit and governance contexts of knowledge exchange have been less recognized. The failure to consider these contexts of knowledge exchange can result in the promotion of benefits while failing to adequately address adverse consequences. The purpose of this article is to promote awareness of these issues to encourage their wider incorporation into research, policy, measures to implement free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) and the development of equitable adaptation partnerships between indigenous peoples and researchers.
Mason et al. Listening and Learning from Traditional Knowledge and Western Science: A Dialogue on Contemporary Challenges of Forest Health and Wildfire (2012).
This article, coauthored by all 27 participants, offers a summary background followed by candid highlights of dialogue along with recommendations for progress based on lessons learned. The central conclusion is that integration and application of traditional knowledge with western science for improved stewardship of natural resources will require enduring commitments to knowledge sharing that extend beyond the usual boundaries of professional training and cultural orientation such that learning can proceed, legacy myths might be corrected, and the forests and the people will benefit.
Nakashima et al. Weathering Uncertainty: Traditional Knowledge for Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation (2012).
This report provides an overview of the published scientific literature (primarily peer-reviewed, but also grey) relating to the contribution of traditional/indigenous knowledge to our understanding of global climate change: observations, impacts and opportunities for adaptation.
Climate change related impacts, such as increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, higher temperatures, extreme changes to ecosystem processes, forest conversion and habitat degradation are threatening tribal access to valued resources. Climate change is and will affect the quantity and quality of resources tribes depend upon to perpetuate their cultures and livelihoods. Climate impacts on forests are expected to directly affect culturally important fungi, plant and animal species, in turn affecting tribal sovereignty, culture, and economy. This article examines the climate impacts on forests and the resulting effects on tribal cultures and resources. To understand potential adaptive strategies to climate change, the article also explores traditional ecological knowledge and historical tribal adaptive approaches in resource management, and contemporary examples of research and tribal practices related to forestry, invasive species, traditional use of fire and tribal-federal coordination on resource management projects. The article concludes by summarizing tribal adaptive strategies to climate change and considerations for strengthening the federal-tribal relationship to address climate change impacts to forests and tribal valued resources.
Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social–ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain). Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales.
Tsosie, Rebecca. Climate Change, Sustainability and Globalization: Charting the Future of Indigenous Environmental Self-Determination (2009).
This article explores indigenous peoples' claims to "sustainability" and "self-determination" in an era where the global community faces challenges that could dramatically alter the natural world, most vividly illustrated by the problem of climate change. Although we constitute a "global community" in an ecological sense, we are situated within a multitude of cultural communities that have differing values about our obligations to other communities, to the land, and to future generations. Given this reality, how do we create needed policy changes at the local, national, and global levels? This article argues that continuing tensions over development evoke intercultural norms of value, sustainability, and justice. The article first examines the politics of climate change within the international and domestic governance structures, on the theory that these politics provide the overarching framework for discussions on tribal energy policy and the context of "indigenous environmental self-determination." The article next explores the history and current context of tribal energy development that informs much of the contemporary exercise of environmental self-determination for Indian nations in the United States. The article then engages a focused discussion of the energy policies of the Navajo Nation, which has asserted its 'sovereign authority to develop its energy reserves in a manner that is consistent with tribal norms and its commitment to self-determination. Finally, the article develops the notion of "sustainability" as one that embodies the combined forces of policy, justice, and environmental ethics.
Berkes, Fikret. Understanding Uncertainty and Reducing Vulnerability: Lessons from Resilience Thinking (2007).
The objectives of the paper are (1) to explore how resilience thinking deals with uncertainty and change in general, and (2) to discuss the ways in which vulnerability may be reduced by building resilience. Examples related to partnerships and the role of local-level and community-based approaches are provided throughout. The ﬁrst part of the paper deals with the background theory regarding uncertainty, complex systems and resilience. The second part deals with four clusters of factors relevant to resilience building: living with uncertainty; nurturing diversity; using different kinds of knowledge for learning; and creating opportunities for self-organization.
Davidson-Hunt, Iain and Michael O’Flaherty. Researchers, Indigenous Peoples, and Place-Based Learning Communities (2007).
Relations between external researchers and indigenous communities have been increasingly strained by differences in understanding and in expectation about the relevance of research. In the field of resource management, the potential for conflict over research is increased by the politics surrounding control over the resource management decision making processes. In this article, the authors propose the creation of dialogic networks that engage researchers and indigenous people as collaborators in a process of knowledge production. Such an applied research process can produce context-specific knowledge networks that support management and planning decisions by indigenous people; these networks we refer to as place-based learning communities.
Berkhout et al. Socio-economic Futures in Climate Change Impact Assessment: Using Scenarios as ‘Learning Machines’ (2001).
Climate impact assessment requires a clear picture of two intimately interrelated processes: socio-economic change and climate change. To date, future change in socio-economic systems has been mostly ignored in the analysis of climate change impacts. More inclusive and systematic scenario approaches offer a means of dealing with critical issues of complexity, innovation, reflexivity and framing in analyzing change in socio-economic systems, paving the way for a more sensitive and systematic handling of socio-economic futures in impact assessment. The authors argue that scenarios represent a heuristic tool encouraging policy and organizational learning in climate impact assessment. The advantages and disadvantages of a scenario-based approach are explored via a detailed study of a regional climate impact assessment in the UK.
In this paper the authors surveyed the international literature to focus on the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in monitoring, responding to, and managing ecosystem processes and functions, with special attention to ecological resilience. Case studies revealed that there exists a diversity of local or traditional practices for ecosystem management.
Kimmerer, Robin Wall. Native Knowledge for Native Ecosystems (2000).
In an effort to restore forest health and diversity, federal agencies are calling for management practices directed toward a "return to the presettlement equilibrium." Restoring forests to that presettlement structure and function is not possible without also understanding the relationship between the indigenous inhabitants and the land. Indigenous knowledge systems have much to offer in the contemporary development of forest restoration. Traditional knowledge is particularly useful in identifying reference ecosystems and in illuminating cultural ties to the land. Although Native peoples' traditional knowledge of the land differs from scientific knowledge, both have strengths that suggest the value of a partnership between them.
Indigenous peoples with a historical continuity of resource-use practices often possess a broad knowledge base of the behavior of complex ecological systems in their own localities. This knowledge has accumulated through a long series of observations transmitted from generation to generation. Such" diachronic" observations can be of great value and complement the" synchronic" observations on which western science is based.
Smith, Tansey. 1854 Ceded Territory Climate Summary 2016-2017 (2018).
The 1854 Treaty Authority Climate Change Program has developed the 2016-2017 Climate Summary to support implementation of the 1854 Ceded Territory Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Plan. The plan was developed through collaboration between the 1854 Treaty Authority, Bois Forte Band of Chippewa, Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa and Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa.
This document offers a snapshot of the results of a cooperative effort among Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. and nine federally recognized Tribes in Michigan in regards to climate change and adaptation planning.
This annual report provides an overview of the work being done through the Center for Native Peoples and the Environment at the State University of New York-College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The report includes write ups on the Voices from Maple Nation: Indigenous Women’s Climate Change Summit, “Helping Forests Walk: Assessing opportunities for assisted migration of culturally important species in the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy” - an outreach program addressing concerns of climate change with the Haudenosaunee, and also the students and faculty involved with the work.
Climate Change and Our Natural Resources: A Report from the Treaty Tribes in Western Washington (2016)
This report was created by 20 member tribes in the Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission looking at the impacts of Climate Change to their homelands, waters, and way of life.
Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Plan 1854 Ceded Territory Including the Bois Forte, Fond du Lac, and Grand Portage Reservations (2016).
Through this project, the Bois Forte Band, Fond du Lac Band, Grand Portage Band, and 1854 Treaty Authority partnered with Adaptation International, and the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessment Center at the University of Michigan. The purpose of the project was to investigate how changing climate conditions already are and could continue to affect the landscape and species within the 1854 Ceded Territory and the respective reservations. In addition to assessing changes, the partners also identified climate-related vulnerabilities and identified actions that could be taken to create more climate resilient systems.
MICHIGAN TRIBAL CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND ADAPTATION PLANNING. PROJECT REPORT (2016).
This planning document is the result of a cooperative effort among the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc., and nine federally-recognized Tribes in Michigan. This project has served to connect tribally-driven climate change vulnerability assessments, identification of climate sensitive tribal assets, and finally, adaptation planning to support tribal decision making and prevent or minimize climate change impacts on important tribal resources. This work would not have been possible without the dedication of participating Tribe staff, who contributed their time and expertise in service of the Tribes.
Climate change threatens Native Peoples’ access to traditional foods and adequate water. Alaskan Native communities are increasingly exposed to health and livelihood hazards related to rising temperatures and declining sea ice. Climate change impacts are forcing relocation of some Native communities.
Supporting Tribal Climate Change Adaptation Planning Through Community Participatory Strategic Foresight Scenario Development (2014).
The topic of this project concerns the challenge of how specific Tribes can make plans for adapting to climate change in contexts of uncertainty in ways that ensure respect for Tribal sovereignty, protect Tribal cultures and harness cultural resources (such as traditional ecological knowledge), integrate the best scientific resources about environmental change, address emerging social problems, and negotiate jurisdictional and other legal challenges unique to federally-recognized Tribes (see Evans et al. 2013 for overviews of the challenges of Indigenous planning).
USET is a Inter-Tribal organization that was established on October 4, 1968. It is a Inter-Tribal organization that is made up of 26 federally-recognized Tribal Nation members. USET has an department to assist tribes in environmental issues that relate to safe drinking water, healthy ecosystem and climate change it is called Office of Environmental Resource Management (OERM). They held a two-day Climate Change Adaptation Workshop. It was held to help teach planning and organizational skills to help assist their communities deal with climate change.
Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa: Reducing its Carbon Footprint and Adapting to Climate Change (2012).
The Fond du lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa are located in the northeastern region of Minnesota. They are working towards adapting to climate change. The tribe has noticed impacts like flooding to droughts and warmer weather can lead to threats from invasive species. The tribe has adopted to the Kyoto Protocol in February 2007. They also have projects in place like an Outreach and Educational program, Forestry Program and they also have other climate change related programs underway.
Facing the Storm: Indian Tribes, Climate-Induced Weather Extremes, and the Future for Indian Country (2011).
North American Indian Tribes are especially harmed by climate change, as more ecological shifts and more frequent, more extreme weather events occur. Because Tribes are heavily dependent on natural resources, severe weather events like droughts, floods, wildfires, and snowstorms make tribal communities particularly vulnerable and impact Native Americans more than they impact the general population. A collaboration of the University of Colorado Law School, Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals, National Congress of American Indians, Native American Fish and Wildlife Society, and Native American Rights Fund, the National Wildlife Federation Tribal Lands Program produced this report.
Tribes & Climate Change - Tuscarora: Drawing on Traditional Teaching to Confront a Changing Climate (2011).
The Tuscarora Nation is located in the Midwest region of new York. The Tuscarora Nation Environmental Program started with the help of the Haudenosaunee Environmental Task Force (HETF). The tribes program addresses a variety of bio-cultural concerns that rely on traditional teaching and ecological sustainability.Some of the tribes main concerns focus on that there will be no drinking water available and the strawberry plants won't produce any more and how the winds will change and the storms will move in a different way.
American Indians and Alaska Native Tribes face significant threats to their cultural resources and traditional ways of life from climate change. Pro-active strategies in planning for the potential impacts from climate change can assist indigenous communities in being resilient in the face of change. This framework is intended to serve as a resource for American Indian and Alaska Native tribes developing tribal climate change adaptation plans or incorporating climate change adaptation strategies into existing tribal plans and initiatives, including strategic plans or natural resource management plans
In 2000, funds were received from the Administration for Native Americans (ANA) for a two-year project to fulfill proposed grant objectives related to wild plants. One of those objectives, fulfilled by this document, was to determine current threats to wild plants in the tcnitory ceded by various treaties between the US Government and the Chippewa. Treaties signed by the Anishinaabcl in 1836, 1837, 1842, and 1854 ceded vast tracts ofland to the US in an area that is cun-ently within portions of the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota (Figure I). In return, the Anishinaabe were guaranteed hunting, fishing, and gathering rights in the ceded area. These treaty reserved rights guaranteed that the tribes could continue their way ofhfe to meet their subsistence, economic, cultural, spiritual, and medicinal needs (Erickson 2002). Teaching the use and proper gathering techniques of wild plants to younger generations has always been an integral part of this life way. Today, this type of knowledge is referenced to as traditional ecological knowledge and wisdom.
Daigle and Putnam. Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples of Maine
Dependence on natural resources makes indigenous people around the world vulnerable to climate change. Maine's recognized Wabanaki tribes are looked at in terms of climate change and its impact on plants and animals, way of life, and tribal economy and government.